Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization began around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh. The fertile floodplain of the Nile gave humans the opportunity to develop a settled agricultural economy and a more sophisticated, centralized society that became a cornerstone in the history of human civilization. Nomadic modern human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120 thousand years ago. By the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of Northern Africa became increasingly hot and dry, forcing the populations of the area to concentrate along the region.
The picture above is a map of ancient Egypt. The southern part is called "Upper Egypt" because the Nile flows NORTHWARD from equatorial Africa , the "Upper Nile" is the southern end and "Lower Nile" the northern end, where its delta meets the Mediterranean Sea.